RESEARCH BRIEFS

The following studies will be published in Endocrine Society journals. Before print, they are edited and posted online in each journal’s Early Release section. You can access the journals via www.endo-society.org.

In mice fed a low-fat diet, angiotensin II regulates adipocyte differentiation and morphology via the AT1aR; this finding could be useful in diseases associated with cachexia. Putnam K, Batifoulier-Yiannikouris F, Bharadwaj KG, et al. Deficiency of angiotensin type 1a receptors in adipocytes reduces differentiation and promotes hypertrophy of adipocytes in lean mice.

The actin regulatory protein, filamin A, is involved in rat BTB assembly. Su W-h, Mruk DD, Lie PPY, Lui W-y, Cheng Y. Filamin A is a regulator of blood-testis barrier assembly during postnatal development in the rat testis.

Chemerin levels are elevated in a 5α-dihydrotestosterone–induced rat PCOS model. Wang Q, Kim JY, Xue K, Liu J-y, Leader A, Tsang BK. Chemerin, a novel regulator of follicular steroidogenesis and its potential involvement in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Elephant shark MC2R is the first vertebrate MC2R that does not require MRAP1 for functional activation and can use either ACTH or MSH-sized ligands, these characteristics help separate cartilaginous fishes from bony fishes. Reinick CL, Liang L, Angleson JK, Dores RM. Identification of an MRAPindependent melanocortin-2 receptor: Functional expression of the cartilaginous fish, Callorhinchus milii, melanocortin-2 receptor in CHO cells.

ALL treatment in childhood without cranial radiation may not result in long-term bone deficits. Mostoufi-Moab S, Brodsky J, Isaacoff EJ, et al. Longitudinal assessment of bone density and structure in childhood survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial radiation.

Endometrial S100A11 plays an important role in intracellular Ca+2 homeostasis, embryo implantation, and pregnancy outcomes. Liu X-M, Ding G-L, Jiang Y, et al. Down regulation of S100A11, a calcium-binding protein, in human endometrium may cause reproductive failure.

Visceral adipose tissue and bone marrow fat are detrimental to bone, whereas muscle mass, testosterone, estradiol, and growth hormone are beneficial. Bredella MA, Lin E, Gerweck AV, et al. Determinants of bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties in obese men.

Lower vitamin D levels in offspring may occur if the child was exposed in utero to ambient urban air pollution. Baïz N, Dargent-Molina P, Wark JD, et al. Gestational exposure to urban air pollution related to a decrease in cord blood vitamin D levels.

Subclinical hyperthyroidism in the elderly is linked to dementia. Gan EH, Pearce SHS. The thyroid in mind: Cognitive function and low thyrotropin in older people.

A negative feedback mechanism for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion involving dopamine might explain the increased adiposity seen with antipsychotics and the recurrence of type 2 diabetes following sleeve gastrectomy. Simpson N, Maffei A, Freeby M, et al. Dopamine mediated autocrine inihibitory circuit regulating human insulin secretion in vitro.

AR is involved in the crosstalk between macrophages and prostate epithelial cells. Lu T, Lin W-J, Izumi K, et al. Targeting androgen receptor to suppress macrophage-induced EMT and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) development.

A ghrelin-glucagon axis is activated to control glycemia under fasting conditions. Chuang J-C, Sakata I, Kohno D, et al. Ghrelin directly stimulates glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha-cells.

In mice, macrophages suppress the renin-angiotensin system, and thus atherosclerosis, through vitamin D receptor signaling. Szeto FL, Reardon CA, Yoon D, et al. The vitamin D receptor signaling inhibits atherosclerosis in mice.

Randeva HS, Tan BK, Weickert MO, et al. Cardiometabolic aspects of the polycystic ovary syndrome.

Limonta P, Marelli MM, Mai S, Motta M, Martini L, Moretti RM. GnRH receptors in cancer: From cell biology to novel targeted therapeutic strategies.

Kang J, Rivest S. Lipid metabolism and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: A role for liver X receptors.

Ke HZ, Richards WG, Li X, Ominsky MS. Sclerostin and dickkopf-1 as therapeutic targets in bone diseases.

Mortensen KH, Andersen NH, Gravholt CH. Cardiovascular phenotype in Turner syndrome—integrating cardiology, genetics, and endocrinology.

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