Random Blood Glucose: A Robust Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes • Michael E. Bowen, Lei Xuan, Ildiko Lingvay, and Ethan A. Halm • A single RBG ≥ 100 mg/ dL is more strongly associated with undiagnosed diabetes than traditional risk factors. Abnormal RBG values are a risk factor for diabetes and should be considered in screening guidelines.
Arterialized Venous Bicarbonate Is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density and an Increased Rate of Bone Loss in Older Men and Women • L.S. Tabatabai, S.R. Cummings, F.A. Tylavsky, D.C. Bauer, J.A. Cauley, S.B. Kritchevsky, A. Newman, E.M. Simonsick, T.B. Harris, A. Sebastian, and D.E. Sellmeyer • Arterialized plasma HCO3 was associated positively with cross-sectional BMD and inversely with the rate of bone loss, implying that systemic acid-base status is an important determinant of skeletal health during aging. Ongoing bone loss was linearly related to arterialized HCO3 even after adjustment for age and renal function. Further research in this area may have major public health implications, as reducing dietary net acid load is possible through dietary intervention or through supplementation with alkaline potassium compounds.
Two-Year Changes in Bone Density after Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery • Elaine W. Yu, Mary L. Bouxsein, Melissa S. Putman, Elizabeth L. Monis, Adam E. Roy, Janey S.A. Pratt, W. Scott Butsch, and Joel S. Finkelstein • Substantial bone loss occurs throughout the 24 months after gastric bypass despite weight stability in the second year. Though the benefits of gastric bypass surgery are well established, the potential for adverse effects on skeletal integrity remains an important concern.
Metabolic Changes Induced by the Biliopancreatic Diversion in DietInduced Obesity in Male Rats: The Contributions of Sleeve Gastrectomy and Duodenal Switch • Elena-Dana Baraboi, Wei Li, Sébastien M. Labbé, Marie-Claude Roy, Pierre Samson, Frédéric-Simon Hould, Stéphane Lebel, Simon Marceau, Laurent Biertho, and Denis Richard • Altogether the results of this study suggest that the DS component of the BPD/DS, which led to a reduction in digestible energy intake while sustaining energy expenditure, plays a key role in the improvement in the metabolic profile led by BPD/DS in rats fed a HF diet.
Brain Innate Immunity Regulates Hypothalamic Arcuate Neuronal Activity and Feeding Behavior • Wagner L. Reis, Chun-Xia Yi, Yuanqing Gao, Mathias H. Tschöp, and Javier E. Stern • These studies support a major role for a TLR4-mediated microglia signaling pathway in the control of ARC neuronal activity and feeding behavior.
Androgens Regulate Bone Marrow B Lymphopoiesis in Male Mice by Targeting Osteoblast-Lineage Cells • Anna S. Wilhelmson, Alexandra Stubelius, Anna E. Börjesson, Jianyao Wu, Anna Stern, Stephen Malin, Inga-Lill Mårtensson, Claes Ohlsson, Hans Carlsten, and Åsa Tivesten • Androgens exert inhibitory effects on bone marrow B lymphopoiesis in males by targeting the AR in osteoblast-lineage cells. The identification of the likely target cell for androgen-mediated regulation of bone marrow B lymphopoiesis will contribute to elucidation of the mechanisms by which androgens modulate immunerelated disorders.
Novel Three Dimensional Human Endocervix Cultures Respond to 28-Day Hormone Treatment • Sevim Yildiz Arslan, Yanni Yu, Joanne E. Burdette, Mary Ellen Pavone, Thomas J. Hope, Teresa K. Woodruff, and J. Julie Kim • In summary, a robust, novel 3D endocervical culture was developed and physiologic responses to the menstrual cycle mimic of estradiol and progesterone levels for a period of 28 days were identified.
Nuclear Receptor Coregulators of the p160 Family: Insights into Inflammation and Metabolism • David A. Rollins, Maddalena Coppo, and Inez Rogatsky • Here, the authors review the evolving and, at times, contradictory, literature on the pleiotropic functions of NCOA1/2/3 in inflammation and metabolism as related to nuclear receptor actions and beyond. They then briefly discuss the potential utility of NCOAs as predictive markers for disease and/or possible therapeutic targets once a better understanding of their molecular and physiological actions is achieved. Nuclear receptor signaling in inflammation and metabolism.
Inflammation and ER Stress Regulate Branched Chain Amino Acid Uptake and Metabolism in Adipocytes • Joel S. Burrill, Eric K. Long, Brian Reilly, Yingfeng Deng, Ian M. Armitage, Philipp E. Scherer, and David A. Bernlohr • These results indicate that inflammation and ER stress attenuate lipogenesis in visceral adipose depots by down regulating the BCAA/TCA metabolism pathway and are consistent with a model whereby the accumulation of serum BCAA in the obese insulin-resistant state is linked to adipose inflammation.