Glucose Metabolism in High Risk Subjects for Type 2 Diabetes Carrying the rs7903146TCF7L2 Gene Variant • Giuseppe Daniele, Melania Gaggini, Mario Comassi, Cristina Bianchi, Giuseppina Basta, Angela Dardano, Roberto Miccoli, Andrea Mari, Amalia Gastaldelli, and Stefano Del Prato • In subjects at risk for T2DM, the TCF7L2 polymorphisms were associated with reduced Raex into systemic circulation causing reduced post-prandial blood glucose increase and, in turn, lower insulin secretion rate with no impairment in beta cell function. The reduced Raex is likely due to greater glucose retention in the splanchnic area.
Association of Sleep Duration and Quality with Alterations in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenocortical Axis: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) • Cecilia Castro-Diehl, Ana V. Diez Roux, Susan Redline, Teresa Seeman, Sandi Schrager, and Steven Shea • Shorter sleep duration, lower sleep effi ciency, and insomnia are associated with alterations in diurnal cortisol levels consistent with changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal regulation.
The Effects of Recombinant Human Insulin-like Growth Factor-I/Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 Administration on Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Recreational Athletes • Nishan Guha, Simon P. Nevitt, Michael Francis, John A. Woodland, Dankmar Böhning, Peter H. Sönksen, and Richard I.G. Holt • rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3 administration for 28 days improves aerobic performance in recreational athletes but there are no effects on body composition.
Post-Gastric Bypass Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia: Fructose is a Carbohydrate Which Can Be Safely Consumed • Anne E. Bantle, Qi Wang, and John P. Bantle • People with post-gastric bypass hypoglycemia can consume a meal sweetened with fructose with little risk of hypoglycemia. Treatment with rapid acting insulin before a carbohydrate containing meal did not prevent hypoglycemia.
Neuroendocrine Function Following Hypothalamic Depletion of Glucocorticoid Receptors in Male and Female Mice • Matia B. Solomon, Matthew Loftspring, Annette de Kloet, Sriparna Ghosal, Ryan Jankord, Jonathan N. Flak, Aynara C. Wulsin, Eric G. Krause, Rong Zhang, Taylor Rice, Jessica McKlveen, Brent Myers, Jeff rey G. Tasker, and James P. Herman • Overall, these findings reveal pronounced sex differences in the PVN GR dependence of acute stress feedback regulation of HPA axis function. In addition, these data further indicate that glucocorticoid control of HPA axis responses following chronic stress operates via a PVN-independent mechanism.
Glucagon Receptor Blockade with a Human Antibody Normalizes Blood Glucose in Diabetic Mice and Monkeys • Haruka Okamoto, Jinrang Kim, JohnPaul Aglione, Joseph Lee, Katie Cavino, Erqian Na, Ashique Rafique, Jee Hae Kim, Joyce Harp, David M. Valenzuela, George D. Yancopoulos, Andrew J. Murphy, and Jesper Gromada • In summary, the glucagon receptor-blocking antibody REGN1193 normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice and monkeys but does not produce hypoglycemia in normoglycemic monkeys. Thus, REGN1193 provides a potential therapeutic modality for diabetes mellitus and acute hyperglycemic conditions.
Thyrostimulin Regulates Osteoblastic Bone Formation During Early Skeletal Development • J.H. Duncan Bassett, Anne van der Spek, John G. Logan, Apostolos Gogakos, Jayashree B. Chakraborty, Elaine Murphy, Clementine van Zeijl, Jenny Down, Peter I. Croucher, Alan Boyde, Anita Boelen, and Graham R. Williams • These studies identify thyrostimulin as a negative but indirect regulator of osteoblastic bone formation during skeletal development.
Testing the Critical Window Hypothesis of Timing and Duration of Estradiol Treatment on Hypothalamic Gene Networks in Reproductively Mature and Aging Female Rats • Weiling Yin, Sean M. Maguire, Brian Pham, Alexandra N. Garcia, Nguyen-Vy Dang, Jingya Liang, Andrew Wolfe, Hans A. Hofmann, and Andrea C. Gore • These results highlight the plasticity of hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems during reproductive aging and its surprising ability to adapt to diverse E2 replacement regimes.
Overexpression of the FoxO1 Ameliorates Mesangial Cell Dysfunction in Male Diabetic Rats • Guijun Qin, Yingni Zhou, Feng Guo, Lei Ren, Lina Wu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaojun Ma, and Qingzhu Wang • Together, these fi ndings shed light on the novel function of FoxO1 in inhibiting ECM deposition, which is benefi cial to ameliorate MC dysfunction.
Minireview: Emerging Concepts in Islet Macrophage Biology in Type 2 Diabetes • David L. Morris • The intent of this review is to introduce the reader to emerging concepts of islet macrophage biology that may challenge the perception that macrophage accumulation in islets is merely a pathological feature of type 2 diabetes.