RESEARCH BRIEFS

The following studies will be published in Endocrine Society journals. Before print, they are edited and posted online in each journal’s Early Release section. You can access the journals via www.endo-society.org.

Synthetic progestins already used for contraception may promote recovery after a stroke. Liu A, Margaill I, Zhang S, et al. Progesterone receptors: A key for neuroprotection in experimental stroke.

Resveratrol regulates steroidogenesis by deacetylating and activating mitochondrial P450s via SIRT proteins. Li D, Dammer EB, Sewer MB. Resveratrol stimulates cortisol biosynthesis by activating SIRT-dependent deacetylation of P450scc.

Orexin A inhibits firing frequency of GnRH neurons in ovariectomized mice by suppressing spike initiation and burst maintenance. Gaskins GT, Moenter SM. Orexin A suppresses gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron activity in the mouse.

Lowered plasma FFA levels activates the HPA axis to increase adrenocorticoptropic hormone and corticosterone, which help restore these levels to normal. Oh YT, Oh K-S, Kang I, Youn JH. A fall in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) level activates the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis independent of plasma glucose: Evidence for brain sensing of circulating FFA.

Patients with serum 25(OH)D levels less than 50 nmol/L are at increased risk for mortality. Saliba W, Barnett O, Rennert HS,
Rennert G. The risk of all-cause mortality is inversely related to serum 25(OH)D levels.

Compared to normal premenopausal women, premenopausal women with IOP or idiopathic low bone mineral density have greater marrow adiposity. Cohen A, Dempster DW, Stein EM, et al. Increased marrow adiposity in premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis.

“Conditional HD:SDS” is an appropriate proxy marker for pubertal timing in males. Ong KK, Bann D, Wills AK, et al. Timing of voice breaking in males is associated with growth and weight gain across the life course.

High E2 and high-sensitive C-reactive protein levels are associated with frailty in postmenopausal women not taking hormonal therapy. Carcaillon L, Garcia-García FJ, Tresguerres JAF, Gutierrez Avila G, Kireev R, Rodriguez-Mañas L. Higher levels of endogenous estradiol are associated with frailty in postmenopausal women from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging.

CNP secreted by growing ovarian follicles is capable of stimulating preantral and antral follicle growth and could one day be used to avoid ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome. Sato Y, Cheng Y, Kawamura K, Takae S, Hsueh AJW. C-type natriuretic peptide stimulates ovarian follicle development.

Oxytocin maintains the undifferentiated state of mouse ESCs via the gap junction protein connexin43 and NF-ĸB/CREB1/CBP signaling. Yun SP, Park SS, Ryu JM, et al. Oxytocin stimulates connexin43 expression through NFĸ B/CREB1/CBP complex via lipid-raft-independent oxytocin receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA in mouse embryonic stem cells.

Genomic studies indicate 121 potential direct target genes for the pituitary transcription factor POU1F1. Herman J-P, Jullien N, Guillen S, Enjalbert A, Pellegrini I, Franc J-L. Research resource: A genome-wide study identifies potential new target genes for POU1F1.

SST/SSTR5 signaling is linked to PDX-1, a β-cell–specific transcription factor essential for insulin expression/secretion and cell proliferation. Zhou G, Liu S-H, Shahi KM, et al. Negative regulation of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 by somatostatin receptor subtype 5.

Insulin use in diabetes patients is linked to an increased risk of overall, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer. Janghorbani M, Dehghani M, SalehiMarzijarani M. Systematic review and meta-analysis of insulin therapy and risk of cancer.

Apigenin, a low molecular weight anti-carcinogenic flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and plant-derived beverages, inhibits the proliferation of aggressive Her2/neu-positive BT-474 xenograft tumors in nude mice exposed to MPA, a commonly used progestin in the United States. Mafuvadze B, Liang Y, BeschWilliford C, Zhang X, Hyder SM. Apigenin induces apoptosis and blocks growth of medroxyprogesterone acetate-dependent BT-474 xenograft tumors.

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