Studies in the Society journals

The following studies, among others, will be published in Endocrine Society journals. Before print, they are edited and posted online in each journal’s Early Release section. You can access the journals at www.endocrine.org.

Empirically Based CompositeFracture Prediction Model from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women (GLOW) • Gordon FitzGerald, Juliet E. Compston, Roland D. Chapurlat, Johannes Pfeilschifter, Cyrus Cooper, David W. Hosmer, Jonathan D. Adachi, Frederick A. Anderson, Adolfo Díez-Pérez, Susan L. Greenspan, J. Coen Netelenbos, Jeri W. Nieves, Maurizio Rossini, Nelson B. Watts, Frederick H. Hooven, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Lyn March, Christian Roux, Kenneth G. Saag, Ethel S. Siris, Stuart Silverman, and Stephen H. Gehlbach • After examining results for 10 diff erent bone fracture sites, advanced age appeared the single best possibility for uniting several diff erent sites, resulting in an empirically based composite fracture risk model.

Feeding and Bone Turnover in Gastric Bypass • Juan P. Valderas, Oslando Padilla, Sandra Solari, Manuel Escalona, and Gilberto González • The acute reduction in bone resorption after feeding is preserved in RYGB and even is higher than in non-operated subjects. This phenomenon is related to the increase of post-prandial levels of insulin. These findings suggest a bone-protecting mechanism in RYGB that may counteract the elevated bone resorption that occurs during fasting.

Assessment of Thyroid Function During First-Trimester Pregnancy: What Is the Rational Upper Limit of Serum TSH During the First Trimester in Chinese Pregnant Women? • Chenyan Li, Zhongyan Shan, Jinyuan Mao, Weiwei Wang, Xiaochen Xie, Weiwei Zhou, Chenyang Li, Bin Xu, Lihua Bi, Tao Meng, Jianling Du, Shaowei Zhang, Zhengnan Gao, Xiaomei Zhang, Liu Yang, Chenling Fan, and Weiping Teng • The reference range for nonpregnant women can be used for the assessment of pregnant women at four to six weeks of gestation. The upper limit of serum TSH in the first trimester was much higher than 2.5 mIU/L in Chinese pregnant women.

An N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea Induced Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Promoter Mutation Provides a Mouse Model for Endogenous Glucocorticoid Excess • Liz Bentley, Christopher T. Esapa, M. Andrew Nesbit, Rosie A. Head, Holly Evans, Darren Lath, Cheryl L. Scudamore, Tertius A. Hough, Christine Podrini, Fadil M. Hannan, William D. Fraser, Peter I. Croucher, Matthew A. Brown, Steve D. M. Brown, Roger D. Cox, and Rajesh V. Thakker • A mouse model for Cushing’s syndrome has been established, and this will help in further elucidating pathophysiological eff ects of glucocorticoid excess and in evaluating treatments for corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.

Fetal and Neonatal Iron Deficiency Exacerbates Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency Effects on Male Thyroid Hormone Levels and Brain Thyroid Hormone-Responsive Gene Expression • Thomas W. Bastian, Joseph R. Prohaska, Michael K. Georgieff, and Grant W. Anderson • The data suggest that combining two mild thyroidal insults during development significantly disrupts thyroid function and impairs TH-regulated brain gene expression.

Role of Cortactin in Dynamic Actin Remodeling Events in Gonadotrope Cells • Amy M. Navratil, Melissa G. Dozier, Jennifer D. Whitesell, Colin M. Clay, and Mark S. Roberson • The findings suggest that following GnRHa activation, src activity leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin, which facilitates its association with Arp3 to engage the actin cytoskeleton. The reorganization of actin by cortactin potentially underlies GnRHa induced secretory events within αT3–1 cells.

Thyroid Hormone, Thyromimetics, and Metabolic Efficiency • Einav YehudaShnaidman, Bella Kalderon, and Jacob Bar-Tana • Permeability transition pore (PTP) gating may off er a unified target for some TH pleiotropic activities and may serve as a novel target for synthetic functional thyromimetics designed to modulate metabolic efficiency. PTP gating by long-chain fatty acid analogs may serve as a model for such strategy.

Both Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Beta Stimulate Pituitary GH Gene Expression • Dimiter Avtanski, Horacio Novaira, Sheng Wu, Christopher J. Romero, Rhonda Kineman, Raul M. Luque, Fredric Wondisford, and Sally Radovick • The authors propose a mechanism by which estrogen directly regulates somatotroph GH synthesis at a pretranslational level. In contrast to the predominant eff ect of ERα in the lactotroph, these results support a role for both ERα and ERβ in the transcriptional control of Gh in the somatotroph and illustrate important diff erences in ER isoform specificity in the anterior pituitary.

Vitamin D Is a Regulator of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Arterial Stiffness in Mice • Olena Andrukhova, Svetlana Slavic, Ute Zeitz, Sabine C. Riesen, Monika S. Heppelmann, Tamas D. Ambrisko, Mato Markovic, Wolfgang M. Kuebler, and Reinhold G. Erben • The data demonstrate the importance of intact VDR signaling in the preservation of vascular function and may provide a mechanistic explanation for epidemiological data in humans showing that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with hypertension and endothelial dysfunction.

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