The following studies will be pub- lished in Endocrine Society journals. Before print, they are edited and posted online in each journal’s Early Release section. You can access the journals via

GCGL and its receptor, GCGLR, have been identified in chickens and teleosts, indicating a non-identified role in non-mammalian vertebrates and clues to the evolutionary history of these genes in vertebrates. Wang Y, Meng F, Zhong Y, Huang G, Li J. Discovery of a novel glucagon- like peptide (GCGL) and its receptor (GCGLR) in chickens: Evidence for the existence of GCGL and GCGLR genes in non-mammalian vertebrates.

MCH1R knockout mice exhibit primary hypothyroidism: High thyrotropin-releasing hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone, but low circulating iodothyronine levels. Chung S, Liao X-H, Di Cosmo C, et al. Disruption of the melanin-concen- trating hormone receptor 1 (MCH1R) affects thyroid function.

Autophagy might dampen in- flammatory gene expression, there- by limiting excessive inflammation in adipose tissue during obesity. van Essen P, Jansen HJ, Koenen T, et al. Autophagy activity is up-regulated in adipose tissue of obese individu- als and modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine expression.

Thyromimetics like GC-1 and KB2115 may represent promising cholesterol-lowering therapeutics. Lin JZ, Martagon AJ, Hsueh WA, et al. TR agonists reduce serum cholesterol independent of the LDL receptor.

In heart and liver transplant patients, one 5-mg infusion of zolendronate and weekly alendro- nate prevent bone loss at the hip. Shane E, Cohen A, Stein EM, et al. Zoledronic acid versus aldendronate for the prevention of bone loss after heart or liver transplantation.

EPCs co-expressing osteocalcin are increased at an early stage of diabetes. These cells indicate that vascular calcification occurs early in the disease. Flammer AJ, Gossl M, Li J, et al. Patients with HbA1c in the prediabetic and diabetic range have higher num- bers of circulating cells with osteogenic and endothelial progenitor cell markers.

High thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and thyroid au- toimmunity in early pregnancy increase the risk of gestational diabetes, low birth weight, and spontaneous preterm delivery. Karakosta P, Alegakis D, Georgiou V, et al. Thyroid dysfunction and autoan- tibodies in early pregnancy are associ- ated with increased risk of gestational diabetes and adverse birth outcomes.

Orchidopexy at 9 months is more beneficial for testicular development than an operation at 3 years of age. Kollin C, Stukenborg JB, Nurmio M, et al. Boys with undescended testes: En- docrine, volumetric, and morphometric studies on testicular function before and after orchidopexy at 9 months or 3 years of age.

In the mouse fetal testis, both Leydig and Sertoli cells are needed for testosterone synthesis. Shima Y, Miyabayashi K, Haraguchi S, et al. Contribution of Leydig and Sertoli cells to testosterone production in mouse fetal testes.

Chronic circadian disruption faced by nightshift workers and age-related sleep disturbances may contribute to breast cancer incidence and spread through the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, which drives EMT. Mao L, Dauchy RT, Blask DE, et al. Cir- cadian gating of epithelial-to-mesen- chymal transition in breast cancer cells via melatonin-regulation of GSK3 β.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α may play an important role in the initiation of gene regulatory events that lead to cervical ripen- ing and dilation at term. Kishore AH, Li X-H, Word RA. Hypoxia and PGE2 regulate MiTF-CX during cervical ripening.

An additional role for calcimi- metics has been proposed: increas- ing calcium-sensing receptor FHH/ NSHPT mutant trafficking to the plasma membrane. Grant MP, Stepanchick A, Breitwieser GE. Signaling regulates trafficking of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) mutants of the calcium sensing receptor.

Chopin LK, Seim I, Walpole CM, Her- ington AC. The ghrelin axis—Does it have an appetite for cancer progres- sion?

Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Dunaif A. Insulin resistance and polycystic ovary syndrome revisited: An update on mechanisms and implications.

Di Gialleonardo V, de Vries EFJ, Di Girolamo M, Quintero AM, Dierckx RAJO, Signore A. Imaging of β -cell mass and insulitis in insulin-depen- dent (type 1) diabetes mellitus.

Bonnema S, Hegedus L. Radioiodine therapy in benign thyroid diseases: Effects, side effects, and factors af- fecting therapeutic outcome.

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