Studies in the Society journals

Hypoglycemia and Diabetes: A Report of a Workgroup of the American Diabetes Association and The Endocrine Society Elizabeth R. Seaquist, John Anderson, Belinda Childs, Philip Cryer, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Lisa Fish, Simon R. Heller, Henry Rodriguez, James Rosenzweig, and Robert Vigersky Th e workgroup reconfirmed previous definitions of hypoglycemia in diabetes, reviewed the implications of hypoglycemia on both short- and long-term outcomes, considered the implications of hypoglycemia on treatment outcomes, presented strategies to prevent hypoglycemia, and identified knowledge gaps that should be addressed by future research.

Clinical Outcomes and Molecular Profi le of Differentiated Thyroid Cancers with Radioiodine-Avid Distant Metastases M.M. Sabra, J.M. Dominguez, R.K. Grewal, S.M. Larson, R.A. Ghossein, R.M. Tuttle, and J.A. Fagin RAIA metastatic FCDTC are overrepresented with RAS mutations, whereas RAI refractory metastatic thyroid cancers are enriched with BRAF mutations.

Approach to the Patient With Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Letícia Ferreira, Gontijo Silveira, and Ana Claudia Latronico The precise and early diagnosis of HH can prevent negative physical and psychological sequelae, preserve normal peak bone mass, and restore the fertility in affected patients.

The Effect of Obesity on the Relationship Between Serum Parathyroid Hormone and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Women Sue A. Shapses, Esther J. Lee, Deeptha Sukumar, Ramon Durazo-Arvizu, and Stephen H. Schneider These results suggest that if PTH is suppressed at a lower serum 25OHD in the obese compared to the entire population, the lower average 25OHD concentrations in the obese may not have the same physiological significance as in the general population.

Approach to Testing Growth Hormone (GH) Secretion in Obese Subjects Vera Popovic GH stimulation tests should be avoided in obese subjects with very low pretest probability.

Increased Bone Mass in Mice Lacking the Adipokine Apelin Lalita Wattanachanya, Wei-Dar Lu, Ramendra K. Kundu, Liping Wang, Marcia J. Abbott, Dylan O’Carroll, Thomas Quertermous, and Robert A. Nissenson The increased bone mass in mice lacking apelin suggested complex direct and paracrine/ endocrine effects of apelin on bone, possibly via modulating insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that apelin functions as a physiologically significant antianabolic factor in bone in vivo.

Renal Protective Effects of Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling Blockade in Type 2 Diabetic Mice J.J. Cha, Y.Y. Hyun, M.H. Lee, J.E. Kim, D.H. Nam, H.K. Song, Y.S. Kang, J.E. Lee, H.W. Kim, J.Y. Han, and D.R. Cha GIT27 treatment improves insulin resistance and protects against the renal injury that occurs in type 2 diabetic nephropathy through both metabolic and antiglomerulosclerotic mechanisms, which suggests that TLR pathway inhibition might play a direct protective role in diabetic kidney disease.

cAMP-Responsive Element Binding Protein: A Vital Link in Embryonic Hormonal Adaptation Maria Schindler, Sünje Fischer, René Th ieme, Bernd Fischer, and Anne Navarrete Santos Transcription factors CREB and ATFs vitally participate in embryo-maternal cross talk before implantation in a cell lineage-specific manner. Embryonic CREB/ATFs act as insulin/IGF sensors. Lack of insulin is compensated by a CREB-mediated adiponectin expression, which may maintain glucose uptake in blastocysts grown in diabetic mothers.

Age Increase of Estrogen Receptor-α (ERα) in Cortical Astrocytes Impairs Neurotrophic Support in Male and Female Rats Jason M. Arimoto, Angela Wong, Irina Rozovsky, Sharon W. Lin, Todd E. Morgan, and Caleb E. Finch The persisting effects of ovarian acyclicity in vitro are hypothesized to arise from steroidal perturbations during ovarian senescence, which suggests that increased astrocyte ERα expression during aging contributes to the E2 desensitization of the neuronal responses in both sexes.

Estrogen-Related Receptor γ (ERRγ) Regulates Oxygen-Dependent Expression of Voltage-gated Potassium (K+) Channels and Tissue Kallikrein during Human Trophoblast Differentiation Yanmin Luo, Premlata Kumar, and Carole R. Mendelson ERRγ mediates O2-dependent expression of genes involved in human trophoblast differentiation, function, and vascular homeostasis.

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