Research

Why Does Rate of Bone Density Loss Not Predict Fracture Risk? • William D. Leslie, Sumit R. Majumdar, Suzanne N. Morin, and Lisa M. Lix • The low correlation between past and future BMD loss helps explain why the rate of BMD loss is unlikely to be helpful for refining fracture risk.

A Novel Insulin Resistance Index to Monitor Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance: The ACT NOW Study • Devjit Tripathy, Jeff E. Cobb, Walter Gall, KlausPeter Adam, Tabitha George, Dawn C. Schwenke, MaryAnn Banerji, George A. Bray, Thomas A. Buchanan, Stephen C. Clement, Robert R. Henry, Abbas E. Kitabchi, Sunder Mudaliar, Robert E. Ratner, Frankie B. Stentz, Peter D. Reaven, Nicolas Musi, Ele Ferrannini, and Ralph A. DeFronzo • In IGT subjects, Quantose MQ parallels changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with pioglitazone therapy. Due to its strong correlation with improved insulin sensitivity and its ease of use, Quantose MQ may serve as a useful clinical test to identify and monitor therapy in insulin-resistant patients.

Combined Training Enhances Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity Independent of Age • Brian A. Irving, Ian R. Lanza, Gregory C. Henderson, Rajesh R. Rao, Bruce M. Spiegelman, and K. Sreekumaran Nair • Combined training provides a robust exercise regimen to improve muscle mitochondrial outcomes and physical characteristics independent of age.

Iron Deficiency, an Independent Risk Factor for Isolated Hypothyroxinemia in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women of Childbearing age in China • Xiaohui Yu, Zhongyan Shan, Chenyan Li, Jinyuan Mao, Weiwei Wang, Xiaochen Xie, Aihua Liu, Xiaochun Teng, Weiwei Zhou, Chenyang Li, Bin Xu, Lihua Bi, Tao Meng, Jianling Du, Shaowei Zhang, Zhengnan Gao, Xiaomei Zhang, Liu Yang, Chenling Fan, and Weiping Teng • An association between ID and isolated hypothyroxinemia was found in both pregnant and childbearing-aged women independent of the effects of iodine and thyroid autoimmunity. We speculate that ID may be a pathogenic factor for hypothyroxinemia, even in pregnant women during the first trimester.

Sim1 Inhibits Bone Formation by Enhancing the Sympathetic Tone in Male Mice • Xunde Wang, Wei Wei, Andrew R. Zinn, and Yihong Wan • These findings reveal Sim1 as a critical yet previously unrecognized modulator of skeletal homeostasis that functions through a central relay.

Nedd4 Haploinsufficient Mice Display Moderate Insulin Resistance, Enhanced Lipolysis, and Protection against High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity • Jing Jing Li, Robert J. Ferry Jr., Shiyong Diao, Bingzhong Xue, Suleiman W. Bahouth, and Francesca-Fang Liao • Combined, these data support novel complex roles for Nedd4 in metabolic regulation involving altered insulin and ß-adrenergic signaling pathways.

Impact of Gestational Bisphenol A on Oxidative Stress and Free Fatty Acids: Human Association and Interspecies Animal Testing Studies • Almudena Veiga-Lopez, Subramaniam Pennathur, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Heather B. Patisaul, Dana C. Dolinoy, Lixia Zeng, and Vasantha Padmanabhan • This study provides evidence of the induction of nitrosative stress by prenatal BPA in both the mother and fetus at time of birth and is thus supportive of the use of maternal NY as a biomarker for off spring health.

Maternal Adiponectin Controls Milk Composition to Prevent Neonatal Inflammation • Zixue Jin, Yang Du, Adam G. Schwaid, Ingrid W. Asterholm, Philipp E. Scherer, Alan Saghatelian, and Yihong Wan • The authors’ findings reveal adiponectin as a dosage-dependent regulator of lactation homeostasis and milk quality that critically control inflammation in the nursing neonates. Furthermore, these results suggest that inflammatory infantile disorders may result from maternal adiponectin dysregulation that can be treated by TLR2/4 inhibition.

Sustained Reprogramming of the Estrogen Response Following Chronic Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors • Andrea R. Patterson, Xiaokui Mo, Ali Shapiro, Karen E. Wernke, Trevor K. Archer, and Craig. J. Burd • Taken together, these data demonstrate that chronic exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds can permanently alter physiological hormone signaling.

Mitochondrial Malic Enzyme 3 Is Important for Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cells • Noaman M. Hasan, Melissa J. Longacre, Scott W. Stoker, Mindy A. Kendrick, and Michael J. MacDonald • The data suggest that ME3, far more than ME1 or ME2, is necessary for insulin release. As ME3 enzyme activity is low in beta cells, its role in insulin secretion may involve a function other than its ME catalytic activity.

Actions of the Small-Molecule Ligands SW106 and AH-3960 on the Type-1 Parathyroid Hormone Receptor • Percy H. Carter, thomas Dean, Brijesh Bhayana, Ashok Khatri, Raj Rajur, and Thomas J. Gardella • The study helps to elucidate potential mechanisms of small-molecule binding at the PTHR1.

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