The following studies, among others, will be published in Endocrine Society journals. Before print, hey are edited and posted online in each journal’s Early Release section. You can access the journals at www.endocrine.org.
Persistent Apparent Pancreatic β-Cell Defects in Premenarchal PCOS Relatives • Laura C. Torchen, Naomi R. Fogel, Wendy J. Brickman, Rodis Paparodis, and Andrea Dunaif • DI is decreased in peripubertal FDR girls, and this decrease persists as puberty progresses. These findings suggest that β-cell dysfunction is an early defect in glucose homeostasis preceding decompensation in glucose tolerance in FDR girls. T levels were increased in FDR girls earlier than previously reported, but these changes did not persist suggesting an earlier onset of pubertal increases in glandular androgen secretion in FDR girls.
Long-Acting Progestin-Only Contraceptives Enhance Human Endometrial Stromal Cell Expressed Neuronal Pentraxin-1 and Reactive Oxygen Species to Promote Endothelial Cell Apoptosis • O. Guzeloglu-Kayisli, M. Basar, J. P. Shapiro, N. Semerci, J. S. Huang, F. Schatz, C. J. Lockwood, and U. A. Kayisli • LAPC-enhanced NPTX1 secretion and ROS generation in HESCs impair HEEC survival resulting in a loss in vascular integrity, demonstrating a novel paracrine mechanism to explain LACP-induced AUB.
Intrinsic Expression of a Multiexon Type 3 Deiodinase Gene Controls ZebraThsh Embryo Size • Cuicui Guo, Xia Chen, Huaidong Song, Michelle A. Maynard, Yi Zhou, Alexei V. Lobanov, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Jared J. Ganis, David Wiley, Rebecca H. Jugo, Nicholas Y. Lee, Luciana A Castroneves, Leonard I. Zon, Thomas S. Scanlan, Henry A. Feldman, and Stephen A. Huang • This study indicates that the embryonic deficiency of dio3, once considered only a placental enzyme, causes microsomia independently of placental physiology and raises the intriguing possibility that fetal abnormalities in human deiodination may present as intrauterine growth retardation. By mapping the gene structures and enzymatic properties of all four zebrafish deiodinases, we also identify dio3b as the first multiexon dio3 gene, containing a large intron separating its open reading frame from its selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element.
Evidence of Contribution of iPLA2β-Mediated Events During Islet β-Cell Apoptosis Due to Proinfiammatory Cytokines Suggests a Role for iPLAβ in T1D Development • Xiaoyong Lei, Robert N. Bone, Tomader Ali, Sheng Zhang, Alan Bohrer, Hubert M. Tse, Keshore R. Bidasee, and Sasanka Ramanadham • These observations suggest that iPLA2β-mediated events participate in amplifying β-cell apoptosis due to proinflammatory cytokines and also that iPLA2β activation may have a reciprocal impact on ER stress development. They raise the possibility that iPLA2β inhibition, leading to ameliorations in ER stress, apoptosis, and immune responses resulting from LPC-stimulated immune cell chemotaxis, may be beneficial in preserving β-cell mass and delaying/preventing T1D evolution.
ERβ- and Prostaglandin E2-Regulated Pathways Integrate Cell Proliferation via Ras-Like and Estrogen Regulated Growth Inhibitor in Endometriosis • D. Monsivais, M.T. Dyson, P. Yin, J.S. Coon, A. Navarro, G. Feng, S.S. Malpani, M. Ono, C.M. Ercan, J.J. Wei, M.E. Pavone, E. Su, and S.E. Bulun • Overall, we demonstrated that E2/ERβ and PGE2, integrate at RERG leading to increased endometriotic cell proliferation and represents a novel candidate for therapeutic intervention.
Endogenous ω-3 PUFAs Production Confers Resistance to Obesity, Dyslipidemia, and Diabetes in Mice • Jie Li, Fanghong R. Li, Dong Wei, Wei Jia, Jing X. Kang, Maja Stefanovic-Racic, Yifan Dai, and Allan Z. Zhao • This study shows that endogenous conversion of ω -6 to ω-3 PUFAs via fat-1 strongly protects against obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and dyslipidemia, and may represent a novel therapeutic modality to treat these prevalent disorders.
Comprehensive Overview of the Structure and Regulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor • Sofie Vandevyver, Lien Dejager, and Claude Libert • In this review, we summarize recent knowledge on the distinct GR isoforms and the processes that generate them. We also review the importance of all known transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational modifications, including the regulation of GR by microRNAs. Moreover, we discuss the crucial role of the putative GR-bound DNA sequence as an allosteric ligand influencing GR structure and activity. Finally, we describe how the differential composition and distinct regulation at multiple levels of different GR species could account for the wide and diverse effects of glucocorticoids.
Endocrine Scintigraphy with Hybrid SPECT/CT • Ka Kit Wong, Lorraine M. Fig, Ehab Youssef, Alice Ferretti, Domenico Rubello, and Milton D. Gross • The integration of function depicted by scintigraphy and anatomy with CT has synergistically improved the efficacy of nuclear medicine imaging across a broad spectrum of clinical applications, that include some of the oldest imaging studies of endocrine dysfunction.